Writing effective scenario questions

Want to increase the quality of your assessment questions? Think stories!

Scenario-based evaluation questions help the learner to really think about the content, not just regurgitate facts or data. Check out this easy plan for constructing good scenario questions:

Hendrich’s ABCD Model for Constructing Effective Scenario Questions

·        Actor/Audience – Who is in the situation? Who is involved?

·        Behavior – What situation are they in? What are they trying to or unable to do?

·        Condition – Under what circumstances or context is the actor behaving or hoping to behave?

·        Dilemma/Decision – What decision must the actor make? What dilemma is s/he facing?

Examples of ABCD Question Stems

Below are some example questions which include Actor(s)/Audience (A), Behavior (B), Condition (C), and Dilemma/Decision(D). Note that the order of presentation of each component is not important.

  • Dr. Chang is considering prescribing a blood pressure medication for Jim, who has a comorbid liver disorder. What class of medications is Dr. Chang likely to choose?
  • Meryl stopped taking her antidepressant, because she did not like the sexual side effects. What class of medications was Meryl likely taking?
  • Ernesto has not found any success with two different SSRIs and is worried that he’ll never find relief.  What might Dr. Cerilski tell him?

Now it’s your turn…try writing an ABCD scenario question today!

Transitions

We all know that strong transitions are critical components of an effective instructional design.  But how good are we at actually writing powerful transitions?  Try this “Transition Words” list for ideas to help spice up the transitions in your next design. Special thanks to designer, Talli Sperry, for providing this rich list.

Happy transitioning!
Susan Hendrich

Transition words

Time Relationships

Place and Position

Relationships Between Ideas

After               

Above

About

After a while

Across

About this

After that

Adjacent

According to

Afterwards

Adjacent to

Accordingly

Always

Ahead

Actually

As

A long

All this

As soon as

Along the way

Along with

At

Alongside

Also

At length

Amid

Although

At the end

Amidst

Almost

 At the same time

Among

And

Before

Around

Another

Begin by

At

Apparently

By the time

At first

As

Constantly

At the end

As a consequence

Currently

At the side

As a result

During

Behind

As an illustration

Endlessly

Below

As for

Early

Beneath

As if

Earlier

Beside

As it stands

Even now

Between

As it worked out

Even then

Beyond

As long as

Eventually

By

As much as

Finally

Down

As though

First

Everywhere

As well as

Following

Far

At least

For a long time

Finally

Because

Forever

First

Because of

Fourth

Former

Begin by

From time to time

From

Begin with

Immediately

From aloft

Besides

In other times

Here

Between

In retrospect

Horizontally

Both

In some ages

In

Bring about

In the end

In front of

But

In the future

In the back

By

In the meantime

In the background

Certainly

Last

In the distance

Contrary to

Later

In the first place

Consequently

Long past

In the foreground

Despite

Meanwhile

In the front of

Differ

Next

In the midst of

Due to

Next time

Inside

Either…or

Now

Into

Equally

Now and again

Last

Especially

Often

Latter

Even

Once

Near

Even as

Only when

Nearby

Even if

Second

Next

Even then

Secondly

Next to

Even though

Several years ago

On

Except

Slowly

One after another

Except for

Someday

Opposite

Except that

Sometimes

Out of

Finally

Soon

Outside

For

Sooner

Over

For example

Still

Parallel

For instance

Subsequently

Primarily

For one thing

Suddenly

Second

For that reason

Then

Secondarily

From

Third

There

From time to time

Thirdly

Third

Further

This time

Through

Furthermore

Today

Throughout

Granted

Too often

Toward

Have in common

Until

Under

However

Usually

Upon

If

When

Vertically

If need be

Whenever

Where

If only

While

Within

Important

 

 

In addition

 

 

In addition to

Compare:

Summary Statements and Drawing Conclusions:

In effect

Alike

Accordingly

In fact

As

All this and more

In order to

As well as

Also

In some cases

Both

And if

In spite of

Compared with

As a result

In the same way

Have in common

As a result of

In this respect

In comparison

As for

In this situation

In like manner

As long as

In turn

In the same way

Because

Indeed

Less than

Because of

Instead

 

Bring about

Instead of

Contrast:

Can only lead to

Just

Against

Caused by

Just as

Although

Consequently

Lead to

As opposed to

Due to

Like

At the same time

Due to this

Likely

But

Evidently

Likely to

Contrary to

Finally

Likewise

Conversely

For of course

Mainly

Despite

For this reason

May be

Differ

Hence

Maybe

Even though

If

Merely

Except

Inevitably

Might well

Except that

In conclusion

More importantly

However

In retrospect

Moreover

In contrast

In the simplest terms

Most important

In contrast to

In view of

Most importantly

In spite of

It is evident

Most likely

Instead

It seems

Namely

Instead of

It turned out that

Naturally

Like

Led to

Neither…or

Likewise

Not only…but also

Nevertheless

More than

On the basis of

No matter

None can compare with

Perhaps

No matter that

Not only

Since

No matter what

Or

So

Not only

Same

So that

Not to mention

Similar

Summarily

Obviously

Similarly

Taken all together

Of

The same as

There is every indication that

Of course

Too

There is every reason to conclude that

On the basis of

Much less

Thereby

On the contrary

Neither

Therefore

On the other hand

Nevertheless

Thus

One of the reasons

Nonetheless

 

Only

Nor

 

Only when

On the contrary

 

Or

On the other hand

 

Other than

Still

 

Otherwise

The reverse of

 

Perhaps

Than

 

Probably

Though

 

Rather than

Unless

 

Regardless of

Unlike

 

Same

Whereas

 

Seemingly

While

 

Similar

Yet

 

Similarly

 

 

Simply

 

 

Since

 

 

So

 

 

So that

 

 

Specifically

 

 

Such as

 

 

Surely

 

 

The fact that

 

 

The reason for

 

 

The reverse

 

 

The same as

 

 

Then

 

 

There comes a time

 

 

There is every indication that

 

 

Thereby

 

 

Therefore

 

 

Though

 

 

Thus

 

 

To be sure

 

 

Too

 

 

Too often

 

 

Unless

 

 

Unlike

 

 

Usually

 

 

What’s more

 

 

Whereas

 

 

When

 

 

Whether

 

 

Whether or not

 

 

While

 

 

With

 

 

With respect to

 

 

Yet

 

 

 

àççéñts

So, you wanna use fancy punctuation?

There are two methods you can use: the “ALT key” method and the “insert symbol” method:

ALT key” method

Foreign characters and symbols can be generated by combining the ALT key (found to the left of the space bar) with multiple numeric keystrokes (called “codes”). For example, to type the letter ñ, hold down the ALT key and type the numbers 0241. Please note that to type Ñ requires an entirely different code, not simply holding down the Shift key while typing the 0241 code (this holds true for all special characters).

 

 

To insert:

 

 

 

Hold down the ALT key while typing: 

 

 

 

À

 

 

0192 

 

 

à

 

 

0224 

 

 

È

 

 

0200 

 

 

è

 

 

0232 

 

 

Ì

 

 

0204 

 

 

ì

 

 

0236 

 

 

Ò

 

 

0210 

 

 

ò

 

 

0242 

 

 

Ù

 

 

0217 

 

 

ù

 

 

0249 

 

 

Â

 

 

0194 

 

 

â

 

 

0226 

 

 

Ê

 

 

0202 

 

 

ê

 

 

0234 

 

 

Î

 

 

0206 

 

 

î

 

 

0238 

 

 

Ô

 

 

0212 

 

 

ô

 

 

0244 

 

 

Û

 

 

0219 

 

 

û

 

 

0251 

 

 

Á

 

 

0193 

 

 

á

 

 

0225 

 

 

É

 

 

0201 

 

 

é

 

 

0233 

 

 

Í

 

 

0205 

 

 

í

 

 

0237 

 

 

Ó

 

 

0211 

 

 

ó

 

 

0243 

 

 

Ú

 

 

0218 

 

 

ú

 

 

0250 

 

 

Ä

 

 

0196 

 

 

ä

 

 

0228 

 

 

Ë

 

 

0203 

 

 

ë

 

 

0235 

 

 

Ï

 

 

0207 

 

 

ï

 

 

0239 

 

 

Ö

 

 

0214 

 

 

ö

 

 

0246 

 

 

Ü

 

 

0220 

 

 

ü

 

 

0252 

 

 

ÿ

 

 

0255 

 

 

Ç

 

 

0199 

 

 

ç

 

 

0231 

 

 

Ã

 

 

0195 

 

 

ã

 

 

0227 

 

 

Ñ

 

 

0209 

 

 

ñ

 

 

0241 

 

 

Other Symbols:

 

 

To insert:

 

 

 

Hold down the ALT key while typing: 

 

 

 

ß

 

 

0223 

 

 

¿

 

 

0191 

 

 

¡

 

 

0161 

 

 

Æ

 

 

0198 

 

 

æ

 

 

0230 

 

 

å

 

 

0140 

 

 

ú

 

 

0156 

 

 

«

 

 

0171 

 

 

»

 

 

0187 

 

 

 

The “Insert Symbol” Method

If typing number codes seems awkward to you, there is another option available. This method allows you to design your own “shortcut” keystrokes that will become part of a document’s memory (meaning even if you close out of the document, the shortcut keystrokes you set up will still work when you open it again). However, you will have to reset your shortcut keys every time you open a new Word document, so you may find this method too time consuming. Here’s how it works:

From the toolbar at the top of your screen select Insert. Scroll down the menu until you reach Symbol and click on it. This brings you to a window that displays rows of language symbols. Most of the symbols you will need for typing French, German, Spanish or Italian are found in the normal text font, subset: Latin-1. If you don’t see the symbol that you need, scroll down.

 

To insert them into your document, click on the symbol desired, then click on the “Insert” button (located at the lower right corner) and the selected symbol will automatically be placed at the cursor point in your document. If you prefer, open this window every time you need language symbols and insert them one by one.

 

To avoid the cumbersome Symbol window method, click on the “shortcut key” button in the lower left corner of the window (rather than the “Insert” key). This will take you to a different window, where you will be asked to assign keystrokes to a symbol in the “press new shortcut key” box. Press the keys desired simultaneously; for example, assigning ALT + s to become the shortcut for ß. Once shortcut keys are selected, the window will notify you if this keystroke combination has already been assigned (directly underneath where it says “Currently assigned to:”). If you wish to override the previous assignment, simply click on the “Assign” button (middle right side), then the “Close” button, and your new assignment will override the old, and become part of your document’s memory (meaning every time you need to insert ß, all you need to do is type ALT + s). If you do not wish to override the previous key assignments, simply delete the assignment you made, select new keystrokes, then click the “Assign” button, then “Close” in the lower left corner.

 

Setting up shortcut keystrokes under the “insert symbol” method allows you to design a unique system of language symbol insertion that is easiest for you to use and remember. Students often find it most efficient to write down the shortcut keys they set up the first time, then use the same system for every document they open.

Let me know if you have any questions,

Susan